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Ketamine acts fast to treat depression and its effects last — but how?
In contrast to most antidepressant medications, which can take several weeks to reduce depressive symptoms, ketamine — a commonly used veterinary anesthetic — can lift a person out of deep depression within minutes of its administration, and its effects can last several weeks. Researchers have long-wondered how ketamine can both act quickly and be so long-lasting.
Now, researchers led by Mark Rasenick, distinguished professor of physiology and psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, describe the molecular mechanisms behind ketamine’s ability to squash depression and keep it at bay. They report their findings in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
Two-thirds of participants in clinical studies who did not respond to traditional antidepressants experienced fast and lasting resolution of their depressive symptoms after being given ketamine intravenously, Rasenick explained. The effects of ketamine typically lasted about a week — much longer than would be expected with ketamine’s six-hour half-life in the body.
Rasenick and his colleagues used a cellular model system to investigate how ketamine acted.
In previous research, Rasenick and his colleagues showed that SSRIs — the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants, which includes Prozac and Zoloft — work in the brain by moving molecules called G proteins off of “lipid rafts” on the cell membrane, where the G proteins are held inactive. G proteins produce cyclic AMP, which nerve cells need to signal properly. People with depression, Rasenick found, tend to have a greater proportion of their G proteins packed into these membrane patches, along with dampened brain cell signaling, which may contribute to symptoms of depression, including a feeling of overall numbness.
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In the earlier research, when Rasenick exposed rat brain cells to SSRIs, the drug accumulated in the lipid rafts, and G proteins moved out of the rafts. The movement was gradual, over the span of several days, which Rasenick thinks is the reason why SSRIs and most other antidepressants can take a long time to begin working.
In his current research, Rasenick and his colleagues performed a similar experiment with ketamine and noticed that the G proteins left the rafts much faster. G proteins began migrating out of the lipid rafts within 15 minutes. And the long-lasting effects of ketamine may be due to the fact that the G proteins were very slow to move back into the lipid rafts, Rasenick explained.
The finding contradicts the long-held idea that ketamine works solely by blocking a cellular receptor called the NMDA receptor, which sits on the surface of nerve cells and helps transmit signals. Cheapest Ketalar Tablets For Sale .
In fact, when the researchers knocked out the NMDA receptor, ketamine still had the same effect on the cells — quickly moving G proteins out of lipid rafts on the cell membrane.
“When G proteins move out of the lipid rafts, it allows for better communication among brain cells, which is known to help alleviate some of the symptoms of depression,” Rasenick said. “Whether they are moved out by traditional antidepressants or ketamine, it doesn’t matter, although, with ketamine, the G proteins are very slow to move back into the lipid rafts, which would explain the drug’s long-term effects on depressive symptoms.” Cheapest Ketalar Tablets For Sale .
“This further illustrates that the movement of G proteins out of lipid rafts is a true biomarker of the efficacy of antidepressants, regardless of how they work,” Rasenick explained. “It confirms that our cell model is a useful tool for showing the effect of potential new antidepressant drug candidates on the movement of G proteins and the possible efficacy of these drugs in treating depression.”
What You Need to Know About Ketamine’s Effects
By Sonya Collins Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS
on February 27, 2018 From the WebMD Archives
If you’ve heard of ketamine, it’s probably for its history of abuse as a club drug. But it could also be one of the biggest breakthroughs in treating severe depression in years.
How can one drug hold such promise and peril? The answer lies in how it affects your brain.
Ketamine works like a flash mob, temporarily taking over a certain chemical “receptor.” In some cases and with expert medical care, that can be a good thing. But cross that line, and it’s big trouble. High purity Ketamine Europe .
Your doctor probably won’t give it to you as an antidepressant yet. Scientists are still testing it for that. But if ketamine does bring people back from the depths of depression, it might be the last thing you expect from a drug that can knock you out.
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Ketamine got its start as an anesthesia medicine in the 1960s. It was used on the battlefields of the Vietnam War.
At lower doses, it can help ease pain. Ketamine helps sedatives work and may help people need fewer addictive painkillers, like morphine after surgery or while caring for burns. High purity Ketamine Europe .
When misused, ketamine can change your sense of sight and sound. You can have hallucinations and feel out of touch with your surroundings — and even from yourself. It can make it hard to speak or move, and it’s been abused as a date-rape drug.
“Outside of the clinic, ketamine can cause tragedies, but in the right hands, it is a miracle,” says John Abenstein, MD, president of the American Society of Anesthesiologists.
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Turning around severe depression may not literally be a miracle. But if it happens to you, it can feel like one.
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The FDA hasn’t approved it for that use. But some psychiatrists are trying ketamine experimentally with their patients who have this type of depression, says John Krystal, MD, chief of psychiatry at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Buy Bulk Ketamine Europe .
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